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Where Stakeholder Mapping/Representation analysis technique is applied?

Within the PMBOK® Guide Stakeholder mapping/representation Technique is used in the following process:

Identify StakeholdersProject Stakeholder ManagementInitiating


Identify Stakeholders

Stakeholder mapping and representation is a method of categorizing stakeholders using various methods. Categorizing stakeholders assists the team in building relationships with the identified project stakeholders. Common methods include:

Power/interest grid, power/influence grid, or impact/influence grid. Each of these techniques supports a grouping of stakeholders according to their level of authority (power), level of concern about the project’s outcomes (interest), ability to influence the outcomes of the project (influence), or ability to cause changes to the project’s planning or execution. These classification models are useful for small projects or for projects with simple relationships between stakeholders and the project, or within the stakeholder community itself.

Stakeholder Management

Stakeholder cube.

This is a refinement of the grid models previously mentioned. This model combines the grid elements into a three-dimensional model that can be useful to project managers and teams in identifying and engaging their stakeholder community. It provides a model with multiple dimensions that improve the depiction of the stakeholder community as a multidimensional entity and assists with the development of communication strategies. In the below example stakeholders are color-coded and through the size of the bubble we can bring the size of the cluster or community

Identify Stakeholder

Salience model.

Describes classes of stakeholders based on assessments of their power (level of authority or ability to influence the outcomes of the project), urgency (need for immediate attention, either time-constrained or relating to the stakeholders’ high stake in the outcome), and legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate).  There is an adaptation of the salience model that substitutes proximity for legitimacy (applying to the team and measuring their level of involvement with the work of the project). The salience model is useful for large complex communities of stakeholders or where there are complex networks of relationships within the community. It is also useful in determining the relative importance of the identified stakeholders.

Salience Model

Directions of influence.

Classifies stakeholders according to their influence on the work of the project or the project team itself. Stakeholders can be classified in the following ways:

  • Upward (senior management of the performing organization or customer organization, sponsor, and steering committee),
  • Downward (the team or specialists contributing knowledge or skills in a temporary capacity),
  • Outward (stakeholder groups and their representatives outside the project team, such as suppliers, government departments, the public, end-users, and regulators), or
  • Sideward (the peers of the project manager, such as other project managers or middle managers who are in competition for scarce project resources or who collaborate with the project manager in sharing resources or information).


Prioritizing stakeholders may be necessary for projects with many stakeholders, where the membership of the stakeholder community is changing frequently, or when the relationships between stakeholders and the project team or within the stakeholder community are complex.



Article writer  P Seenivasan, PMP, PgMP, PfMP

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