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Concept of Voting and its brief description | PMBOK®Guide

Voting

Voting is a collective decision-making technique and an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. Examples of voting techniques include:

  • Unanimity. A decision taken where, everyone agrees on a single course of action.
  • A decision taken, with support obtained from more than 50% of the members of the group. Having a group size with an uneven number of participants can ensure that a decision will be reached, rather than resulting in a tie.
  • Plurality. A decision taken by the largest block in a group, even when majority is not achieved. This method is generally used when the number of options nominated is more than two.

Where applied?

Within the PMBOK® Guide, Voting technique used  in the following processes:

PROCESSES

KNOWLEDGE AREA

PROCESS GROUPS

Collect Requirements

Project Scope Management

Planning

Estimating Activity Duration

Project Schedule Management

Planning

Estimate Costs

Project Cost Management

Planning

Monitor and Control Project Work

Project Integration Management

Monitoring and Controlling

Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

Project Stakeholder Engagement

Monitoring and Controlling

Perform Integrated Change Control

Project Integration Management

Monitoring and Controlling

Validate Scope

Project Scope Management

Monitoring and Controlling

Collect Requirements

In collect requirements process, this technique can be used to generate, classify, and prioritize product requirements.

Estimating Activity Durations

One variation of the voting method that is often used in agile-based projects is called the “fist of five” (also called fist to five). In this technique, the project manager asks the team to show their level of support for a decision by holding up a closed fist (indicating no support) up to five fingers (indicating full support). If a team member holds up fewer than three fingers, the team member is given the opportunity to discuss any objections with the team. The project manager continues the fist-of-five process until the team achieves consensus (everyone holds up three or more fingers) or agrees to move on to the next decision.

Estimate Costs

Voting is an assessment process having multiple alternatives with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques are useful for engaging team members to improve estimate accuracy and commitment to the emerging estimates.

Monitor and Control Project Work

As part of monitor and control project work, decisions related to changes to scope, schedule, cost baselines, forecasts of schedule and cost- determining corrective actions and their priorities have to be made. Where there are more options or where many stakeholders are involved, to arrive at a participative decision making process, voting can be used towards effective stakeholder engagement.

Monitor Stakeholder Engagement

Voting can be used to select the best response for a variance in stakeholder engagement.

Perform Integrated Change Control

Voting can take the form of unanimity, majority, or plurality to decide on whether to accept, defer, or reject change requests.

Validate Scope

Voting is used to reach a conclusion when the validation is performed by the project team and other stakeholders.

References:

PMBOK® GUIDE SIXTH EDITION

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